Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 153.589
Filtrar
1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30065, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. While numerous studies report on viral infections in children with hematologic malignancies and solid organ transplantation, epidemiologic data on the incidence and outcome of viral infections in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with targeted therapies are still lacking. OBJECTIVES/STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed all children with brain tumors receiving targeted therapies in a primary or recurrent setting at the Medical University of Vienna from 2006 to 2021. Demographic variables, quantitative and qualitative parameters of possible infections, and treatment outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: In our cohort (n = 117), 36% of the patients developed at least one PCR-proven viral infection. Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections were most common, with 31% and 25%, respectively. Central nervous system (CNS) infections occurred in approximately 10%, with an almost equal distribution of varicella-zoster virus, John Cunningham virus (JCV), and enterovirus. Two patients tested PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, with one virus-related death caused by a SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients receiving bevacizumab or mTOR inhibitors seem to have a greater susceptibility to viral infections. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with brain tumors receiving targeted therapies have a higher risk of viral infections when compared to children receiving conventional chemotherapy or the general population, and life-threatening infections can occur. Fast detection and upfront treatment are paramount to prevent life-threatening infections in immunocompromised children suffering from brain tumors receiving targeted therapies.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130273, 2023 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327849

RESUMEN

The accelerated use, massive disposal, and contamination with face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic have raised new questions regarding their negative impact on the environment emerged. One major concern is whether microplastics (MPs) derived from face masks (FMPs) represent an important ecotoxicological hazard. Here, we discussed the shortcomings, loose ends, and considerations of the current literature investigating the ecotoxicological effects of FMPs on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Overall, there are multiple uncertainties regarding the true impact of FMPs at a certain concentration due to the presence of uncontrolled or unknown degradation products, such as MPs of various size ranges even nano-sized (<1 µm) and chemical additives. It is apparent that FMPs may induce endocrine-disrupting and behavioral effects in different organisms. However, the results of FMPs should be carefully interpreted, as these cannot be extrapolated at a global scale, by taking into account a number of criteria such as face mask manufacturers, providers, consumer preferences, and type of face masks. Considering these uncertainties, it is still not possible to estimate the contribution of face masks to the already existing MP issue.

3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 223: 115118, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332330

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-COV-2 infection has been widely prevalent in many countries and has become a common challenge facing mankind. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a prominent role in this pandemic, and especially TCM with the function of "heat-clearing and detoxifying" has shown an excellent role in anti-virus. Fufang Shuanghua oral liquid (FFSH) has been used to treat the corresponding symptoms of influenza such as fever, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, and upper respiratory tract infections in clinic, which are typical symptoms of COVID-19. The content of chlorogenic acid, andrographolide and dehydrated andrographolide as the quality control components of FFSH is not less than 1.0 mg/mL, 60 µg/mL and 60 µg/mL respectively. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was employed to describe the chemical profile of FFSH. Virtual screening and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) were used to screen the effective components of FFSH acting on SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). As a result, 214 compounds in FFSH were identified or preliminarily characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, and 61 active ingredients with potential inhibitory effects on Mpro were selected through receptor-based and ligand-based virtual screening. In particular, quercetin, forsythoside A, and linoleic acid showed a good inhibitory effect on Mpro in FRET evaluation with IC50 values of 26.15 µM, 22.26 µM and 47.09 µM respectively, and had a strong binding affinity with the receptor Mpro (6LU7) in molecular docking. CYS145 and HIS41 were the main amino acid residues affected by small molecules in the protein binding domain. In brief, we characterized, for the first time, 214 chemical components in FFSH, and three of them, including quercetin, forsythoside A and linoleic acid, were screened out to exert beneficial anti-COVID-19 effects through CYS145 and HIS41 sites, which may provide a new research strategy for TCM to develop new therapeutic drugs against COVID-19.

4.
Clin Invest Ginecol Obstet ; 50(1): 100822, 2023.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36337070

RESUMEN

A number of factors can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, including diseases or drugs, such as COVID-19 disease and vaccinations. The aim of this review is to explore the studies published to date that have studied the presence of alterations that may be related to COVID-19 or vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.We conducted a review in the PubMed database, selecting 10 articles in which the menstrual cycle of adult women of childbearing age was studied, 3 of them in which the participants had been diagnosed with COVID-19 and 7 in which the participants had been vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Regarding COVID-19-related disturbances, 16%-47.2% of the participants presented a prolongation of their cycle, which was more frequent in those who reported more COVID-19 symptoms, and which normalised after 1-2 cycles.Regarding the alterations described after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, 45%-78% of participants reported menstrual cycle alterations, with disparate results for the different parameters analysed, except that the alterations resolved in about 2 months.Both COVID-19 disease and vaccination appear to be associated with the occurrence of menstrual disturbances, which are limited in time and not severe. However, studies are scarce to date, and it is important to continue to develop studies that provide scientific evidence.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMEN

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Pakistán/epidemiología , China , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0214, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387928

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction With the repeated covid-19 epidemic, people have gradually realized the importance of physical exercise, so the sports enthusiasm of young students has also been improved to a certain extent. Objective Analyze the sports behavior and status in adolescent students under the background of covid-19. Methods A questionnaire survey was used in this paper. The questionnaire design is carried out from three aspects: current exercise status, changes of physical exercise, and sports behavior motivation of young students. Results Students and parents prefer exercises at home or in the open space of a relatively safe and single community, choosing non-contact sports that can be completed by a single person or are far away from each other. Improvement in both frequency and duration of exercise was observed in the young students, and most had a gain in psychological quality. Conclusion Physical education teachers must fully match the actual situation of the epidemic's current development by choosing effective teaching methods to promote the continuous development of young students' physical quality. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução Com a repetida epidemia da covid-19, as pessoas foram gradualmente percebendo a importância do exercício físico e um crescimento no engajamento esportivo entre os jovens estudantes foi observado. Objetivo Analisar o comportamento e o status esportivo dos estudantes adolescentes sob o contexto da covid-19. Métodos Este trabalho utilizou uma pesquisa por questionário com desenho realizado a partir de três aspectos: estado atual do exercício físico, alterações do exercício físico, e motivação do comportamento esportivo nos jovens estudantes. Resultados Os estudantes e seus pais preferem exercícios em casa ou em espaço aberto relativamente seguro e isolado, escolhendo esportes sem contato que podem ser realizados por uma única pessoa ou em que estejam longe um do outro. Observou-se uma melhora tanto na frequência quanto na duração dos exercícios físicos dos jovens estudantes e a maioria teve um ganho na qualidade psicológica. Conclusão Os professores de educação física devem combinar plenamente a situação real do atual desenvolvimento da epidemia escolhendo métodos de ensino eficazes que promovam o desenvolvimento contínuo da qualidade física dos jovens estudantes. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Con la repetida epidemia del covid-19, la gente se fue dando cuenta de la importancia del ejercicio físico y se observó un aumento del interés por el deporte entre los jóvenes estudiantes. Objetivo Analizar el comportamiento y la situación deportiva de los estudiantes adolescentes en el contexto del covid-19. Métodos Este trabajo utilizó una encuesta con diseño de cuestionario realizada desde tres aspectos: estado actual del ejercicio, cambios de ejercicio y motivación del comportamiento deportivo en jóvenes estudiantes. Resultados Los estudiantes y sus padres prefieren hacer ejercicio en casa o en un espacio abierto relativamente seguro y aislado, eligiendo deportes sin contacto que puedan ser realizados por una sola persona o donde estén alejados unos de otros. Se observó una mejora tanto en la frecuencia como en la duración del ejercicio en los jóvenes estudiantes y la mayoría tuvo una ganancia en la calidad psicológica. Conclusión Los profesores de educación física deben ajustarse plenamente a la situación real del desarrollo actual de la epidemia eligiendo métodos de enseñanza eficaces que promuevan el desarrollo continuo de la calidad física de los jóvenes estudiantes. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

7.
Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl ; 69: 103738, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042914

RESUMEN

Contagious pathogens, such as influenza and COVID-19, are known to be represented by multiple genetic strains. Different genetic strains may have different characteristics, such as spreading more easily, causing more severe diseases, or even evading the immune response of the host. These facts complicate our ability to combat these diseases. There are many ways to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, and vaccination is the most effective. Thus, studying the impact of vaccines on the dynamics of a multi-strain model is crucial. Moreover, the notion of complex networks is commonly used to describe the social contacts that should be of particular concern in epidemic dynamics. In this paper, we investigate a two-strain epidemic model using a single-strain vaccine in complex networks. We first derive two threshold quantities, R 1 and R 2 , for each strain. Then, by using the basic tools for stability analysis in dynamical systems (i.e., Lyapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle), we prove that if R 1 < 1 and R 2 < 1 , then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the two-strain model. This means that the disease will die out. Furthermore, the global stability of each strain dominance equilibrium is established by introducing further critical values. Under these stability conditions, we can determine which strain will survive. Particularly, we find that the two strains can coexist under certain condition; thus, a coexistence equilibrium exists. Moreover, as long as the equilibrium exists, it is globally stable. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical results.

8.
Expert Syst Appl ; 212: 118715, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092862

RESUMEN

In 2019 there was an outbreak of coronavirus pandemic also known as COVID-19. Many scientists believe that the pandemic originated from Wuhan, China, before spreading to other parts of the globe. To reduce the spread of the disease, decision makers encouraged measures such as hand washing, face masking, and social distancing. In early 2021, some countries including the United States began administering COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccination brought a relief to the public; it also generated a lot of debates from anti-vaccine and pro-vaccine groups. The controversy and debate surrounding COVID-19 vaccine influenced the decision of several people in either to accept or reject vaccination. Because of data limitations, social media data, collected through live streaming public tweets using an Application Programming Interface (API) search, is considered a viable and reliable resource to study the opinion of the public on Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy. Thus, this study examines 3 sentiment computation methods (Azure Machine Learning, VADER, and TextBlob) to analyze COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Five learning algorithms (Random Forest, Logistics Regression, Decision Tree, LinearSVC, and Naïve Bayes) with different combination of three vectorization methods (Doc2Vec, CountVectorizer, and TF-IDF) were deployed. Vocabulary normalization was threefold; potter stemming, lemmatization, and potter stemming with lemmatization. For each vocabulary normalization strategy, we designed, developed, and evaluated 42 models. The study shows that Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy slowly decreases over time; suggesting that the public gradually feels warm and optimistic about COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, combining potter stemming and lemmatization increased model performances. Finally, the result of our experiment shows that TextBlob + TF-IDF + LinearSVC has the best performance in classifying public sentiment into positive, neutral, or negative with an accuracy, precision, recall and F1 score of 0.96752, 0.96921, 0.92807 and 0.94702 respectively. It means that the best performance was achieved when using TextBlob sentiment score, with TF-IDF vectorization and LinearSVC classification model. We also found out that combining two vectorizations (CountVectorizer and TF-IDF) decreases model accuracy.

9.
Comput Human Behav ; 138: 107486, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120514

RESUMEN

Based on a regional survey conducted in five cities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Wuhan) in January 2020 and a national survey experiment conducted in 31 provinces of China in December 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, we investigated the intentions for the misinformed, uninformed, and informed individuals to spread COVID-19 related (mis)information online and the psychological factors affecting their distinct sharing behaviors. We found that (1) both misinformed and uninformed individuals were more likely to spread misinformation and less likely to share fact as compared with the informed ones; (2) the reasons for the misinformed individuals to spread misinformation resembled those for the informed ones to share truth, but the uninformed ones shared misinformation based on different motivations; and (3) information that arouses positive emotions were more likely to go viral than that arouses negative feelings in the context of COVID-19, regardless of facticity. The implications of these findings were discussed in terms of how people react to misinformation when coping with risk, and intervention strategies were proposed to combat COVID-19 or other types of misinformation in risk scenarios.

10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 1-15, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152276

RESUMEN

The diversity of the antigen-specific humoral immune response reflects the interaction of the immune system with pathogens and autoantigens. Peptide microarray analysis opens up new perspectives for the use of antibodies as diagnostic biomarkers and provides unique access to a more differentiated view on humoral responses to disease. This review focuses on the latest applications of peptide microarrays for the serologic medical diagnosis of autoimmunity, infectious diseases (including COVID-19), and cancer.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Autoanticuerpos/análisis , Autoantígenos , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Análisis por Micromatrices , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Péptidos , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 53-62, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152280

RESUMEN

Recent advances in biosensing analytical platforms have brought relevant outcomes for novel diagnostic and therapy-oriented applications. In this context, 3D droplet microarrays, where hydrogels are used as matrices to stably entrap biomolecules onto analytical surfaces, potentially provide relevant advantages over conventional 2D assays, such as increased loading capacity, lower nonspecific binding, and enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we describe a hybrid hydrogel composed of a self-assembling peptide and commercial agarose (AG) as a suitable matrix for 3D microarray bioassays. The hybrid hydrogel is printable and self-adhesive and allows analyte diffusion. As a showcase example, we describe its application in a diagnostic immunoassay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hidrogeles , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hidrogeles/química , Inmunoensayo , Péptidos/química , Cementos de Resina , SARS-CoV-2 , Sefarosa
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 209-217, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152290

RESUMEN

In SARS-CoV-2 pandemic scenario, the identification of rapid methods to detect antibodies against coronavirus has been a wide and urgent issue. Epitope mapping on peptide microarrays is a rapid way to identify sequences with a high immunoreactivity. The process begins with a proteome-wide screening, based on immune affinity; the use of a high-density microarray is followed by a validation phase, where a restricted panel of probes is tested using peptide microarrays; peptide sequences are immobilized through a click-based strategy.COVID-19-positive sera are tested and immuno-domains regions are identified on SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) protein, and Orf1ab polyprotein. An epitope on N protein (region 155-171) provided good diagnostic performance in discriminating COVID-19-positive vs. healthy individuals. Using this sequence, 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity are reached for IgG detection in COVID-19 samples, and no cross-reactivity with common cold coronaviruses is detected. Overall, epitope 155-171 from N protein represents a promising candidate for further development and rapid implementation in serological tests.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Mapeo Epitopo , Epítopos , Humanos , Inmunidad , Inmunoglobulina G , Poliproteínas , Proteoma , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus
13.
Food Control ; 145: 109401, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186659

RESUMEN

During the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the fact that frozen foods can carry the relevant virus raises concerns about the microbial safety of cold-chain foods. As a non-thermal processing technology, high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is a potential method to reduce microbial load on cold-chain foods. In this study, we explored the microbial inactivation of low temperature (5-10 °C) HPCD (LT-HPCD) and evaluated its effect on the quality of prawn during freeze-chilled and frozen storage. LT-HPCD treatment at 6.5 MPa and 10 °C for 15 min could effectively inactivate E. coli (99.45%) and S. aureus (94.6%) suspended in 0.85% NaCl, SARS-CoV-2 Spike pseudovirus (>99%) and human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) (>1-log virus tilter reduction) suspended in DMEM medium. The inactivation effect of LT-HPCD was weakened but still significant when the microorganisms were inoculated on the surface of food or package. LT-HPCD treatment at 6.5 MPa and 10 °C for 15 min achieved about 60% inactivation of total aerobic count while could maintain frozen state and quality of prawn. Moreover, LT-HPCD treated prawn exhibited significant slower microbial proliferation and no occurrence of melanosis compared with the untreated samples during chilled storage. A comprehensive quality investigation indicated that LT-HPCD treatment could maintain the color, texture and sensory of prawn during chilled or frozen storage. Consequently, LT-HPCD could improve the microbial safety of frozen prawn while maintaining its original quality, and could be a potential method for food industry to improve the microbial safety of cold-chain foods.

14.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 374: 132800, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36213178

RESUMEN

Rapid, convenient and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed to timely diagnosis of coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) and control of the epidemic. In this study, a signal-off photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein detection based on a magnetic all-solid-state Z-scheme heterojunction (Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@CdS/Au, FSTCA). Integrating the advantages of magnetic materials and all-solid-state Z-scheme heterostructures, FSTCA was implemented to ligate the capture antibody to form magnetic capture probe (FSTCA/Ab1). It can simplify the separation and washing process to improve reproducibility and stability, while allowing immune recognition to be performed in the liquid phase instead of the traditional solid-liquid interface to improve anti-interference. Besides, the heterojunction inhibited the recombination of photogenerated electron/hole (e-/h+) and promoted the light absorption to provide superior photoelectric substrate signal. The mechanism of photogenerated e-/h+ transfer of FSTCA were investigated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. SiO2 spheres loaded with Au NPs utilized as an efficient signal quencher. The steric hindrance effect of SiO2@Au labeled detection antibodies (SiO2@Au-Ab2) conjugates significantly diminished light absorption and hindered the transfer of photogenerated electrons, further amplifying the signal change value. Based on the above merits, the elaborated immunosensor had a wide linear range of 10 pg mL-1-100 ng mL-1 and a low detection limit down to 2.9 pg mL-1 (S/N = 3). The fabricated PEC immunosensor demonstrated strong anti-interference, easy operation, and high sensitivity, showing enormous potential in clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

15.
DEN Open ; 3(1): e180, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381640

RESUMEN

Background: After the confirmation of coronavirus infection in Japan, a behavioral change caused people and physicians to refrain from visiting hospitals or undergoing examinations. This study aimed to assess how the trend of diagnosis in gastric cancers changed, and how it affected the therapeutic strategies and the interval from diagnosis to treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We use 15 cancer-designated hospitals' registries in Hiroshima, Japan. The target period was March to December 2020, and the same period in 2019 was set as the control period. The monthly mean of diagnoses and the interval from diagnosis to treatment were compared overall and separately by age, treatment procedure, diagnostic process, and clinical stage. Result: In 2020, the monthly mean (standard deviation [SD]) of patients was 192.2 (29.9), a significant 20.1% decrease from 240.7 (20.7) in 2019 due to older age and curative treatment groups. By reason for performing endoscopy, the change rate in cancer screening, endoscopic follow-up, and symptomatic status were -27.0%, -18.0%, and -17.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, the interval (days) from diagnosis to treatment (SD) was 37.8 (26.5) in 2020, significantly shorter than 46 (31.5) in 2019. Conclusion: From 2019 to 2020, we observed a significant decrease in the diagnosis of curable early-stage gastric cancer and treatments, although the interval from diagnosis to treatment decreased. This study suggests that cancer screening played a significant role in the decline in cancer diagnosis that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even under COVID-19 pandemic conditions, there should be an awareness of cancer screening and endoscopic follow-up.

16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 55: 101726, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386031

RESUMEN

Background: Case investigation and contact tracing (CICT) is an important tool for communicable disease control, both to proactively interrupt chains of transmission and to collect information for situational awareness. We run the first randomized trial of COVID-19 CICT to investigate the utility of manual (i.e., call-based) vs. automated (i.e., survey-based) CICT for pandemic surveillance. Methods: Between December 15, 2021 and February 5, 2022, a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial was run in which Santa Clara County ZIP Codes progressively transitioned from manual to automated CICT. Eleven individual-level data fields on demographics and disease dynamics were observed for non-response. The data contains 106,522 positive cases across 29 ZIP Codes. Findings: Automated CICT reduced overall collected information by 29 percentage points (SE = 0.08, p < 0.01), as well as the response rate for individual fields. However, we find no evidence of differences in information loss by race or ethnicity. Interpretations: Automated CICT can serve as a useful alternative to manual CICT, with no substantial evidence of skewing data along racial or ethnic lines, but manual CICT improves completeness of key data for monitoring epidemiologic patterns. Funding: This research was supported in part by the Stanford Office of Community Engagement and the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence.

17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 55: 101712, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386033

RESUMEN

Background: Long-term hypertension control prevents heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases, yet implementation is insufficient worldwide. The redesign of hypertension management by information and communication technology (ICT) improved hypertension control, e.g., by transmission of blood pressure (BP) measurements to a central webspace. However, an easy-to-use secure patient app connected with a practice management centre is lacking. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the newly developed PIA (PC-supported case management of hypertensive patients to implement guideline-based hypertension therapy using a physician-defined and -supervised, patient-specific therapeutic algorithm) intervention with PIA-ICT and eLearning for general practices. Methods: The effectiveness of the PIA intervention was evaluated in a cluster-randomised study. Practices were randomly allocated (1:1) to the intervention or the control group (usual care). Group allocation was unmasked for participants and researchers. The primary outcome was the BP control rate (BP < 140/90 mmHg) after 6-12 months. Secondary outcomes included BP changes and satisfaction with PIA-ICT. The trial is registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00012680). Findings: Starting from December 1, 2019, 64 general practices were recruited over 1 year during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, 848 patients were enrolled between April 15, 2020 and March 31, 2021. The study was completed Sept 30, 2021. At baseline, 636 patients (intervention: 331; control: 305) of 50 general practices met the inclusion criteria. The final dataset for analyses comprised 47 practices and 525 patients (intervention 265; control 260). In the adjusted hierarchical model, the PIA intervention increased the BP control rate significantly by 23.1% points (95% CI: 5.4-40.8%): intervention 59.8% (95% CI: 47.4-71.0%) compared to 36.7% (95% CI: 24.9-50.3%) in the control group. Systolic BP decreased by 21.1 mmHg in the intervention and 15.5 mmHg in the control group. Interpretation: The PIA redesign of care processes improved BP in an outcome-relevant way. Prospectively, it may constitute an important model for hypertension care in Germany. Funding: This study is funded by the German Innovation Fund (Grant number: 01NVF17002).

18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 55: 101724, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381999

RESUMEN

Background: While acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in COVID-19, data on post-AKI kidney function recovery and the clinical factors associated with poor kidney function recovery is lacking. Methods: A retrospective multi-centre observational cohort study comprising 12,891 hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction from 1 January 2020 to 10 September 2020, and with at least one serum creatinine value 1-365 days prior to admission. Mortality and serum creatinine values were obtained up to 10 September 2021. Findings: Advanced age (HR 2.77, 95%CI 2.53-3.04, p < 0.0001), severe COVID-19 (HR 2.91, 95%CI 2.03-4.17, p < 0.0001), severe AKI (KDIGO stage 3: HR 4.22, 95%CI 3.55-5.00, p < 0.0001), and ischemic heart disease (HR 1.26, 95%CI 1.14-1.39, p < 0.0001) were associated with worse mortality outcomes. AKI severity (KDIGO stage 3: HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.37-0.46, p < 0.0001) was associated with worse kidney function recovery, whereas remdesivir use (HR 1.34, 95%CI 1.17-1.54, p < 0.0001) was associated with better kidney function recovery. In a subset of patients without chronic kidney disease, advanced age (HR 1.38, 95%CI 1.20-1.58, p < 0.0001), male sex (HR 1.67, 95%CI 1.45-1.93, p < 0.0001), severe AKI (KDIGO stage 3: HR 11.68, 95%CI 9.80-13.91, p < 0.0001), and hypertension (HR 1.22, 95%CI 1.10-1.36, p = 0.0002) were associated with post-AKI kidney function impairment. Furthermore, patients with COVID-19-associated AKI had significant and persistent elevations of baseline serum creatinine 125% or more at 180 days (RR 1.49, 95%CI 1.32-1.67) and 365 days (RR 1.54, 95%CI 1.21-1.96) compared to COVID-19 patients with no AKI. Interpretation: COVID-19-associated AKI was associated with higher mortality, and severe COVID-19-associated AKI was associated with worse long-term post-AKI kidney function recovery. Funding: Authors are supported by various funders, with full details stated in the acknowledgement section.

19.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2139657, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331873

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Over the past two years, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has greatly altered medical student education as well as daily life. Medical schools across the world were disrupted and had to immediately adapt the educational experience to the online environment in order to continue the delivery of quality medical education. However, COVID-19 was not the only recent pandemic. This posed the question, were similar disruptions and adaptations also seen in recent past pandemics such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that could have prepared medical educators for COVID-19? This scoping review investigated the educational and personal impact of recent pandemics on medical students. METHODS: This review followed the PRISMA-ScR guidelines for scoping reviews. Nine databases including PubMed, ERIC, and EMBASE were systematically searched using keywords and subject headings related to medical students and SARS, H1N1, MERS, Ebola, Zika, and COVID-19. Studies were limited to research studies published between 2000 and 2020 and in English. Based on exclusion and inclusion criteria, all studies were independently screened by two reviewers first by the title/abstract and then via full text. Data were extracted from the included studies and analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 174 studies fit the criteria. Seven major themes emerged from those studies: educational adaptations and online modifications, knowledge and attitudes of students, mental wellness of students, student involvement and use of telehealth, student vaccination, physical wellness of students, and stigma. CONCLUSION: This review provided insights into how medical students were affected by recent pandemics and their perceptions of pivoting to online education, mental health, and knowledge of the diseases. Additionally, this review showcases the various educational adaptations that emerged uniquely during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as telehealth services or video conferencing tools, that can be utilized in a post-pandemic environment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Estudiantes de Medicina , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Technol Forecast Soc Change ; 186: 122125, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348982

RESUMEN

Because of public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, having an optimal medical infrastructure is an important way to maintain the normal operation of society and stimulate vitality in regional innovation. Based on the data on 260 cities at the prefecture level and above in China from 2001 to 2018, this paper investigates the characteristics and mechanisms of medical infrastructure on regional innovation. After a series of regressions, we robustly find that medical infrastructure has a significantly positive impact on regional innovation. In addition, based on the mediating effect model, the mechanism test shows that medical infrastructure can promote regional innovation through the channels of the natural population growth rate, educational level, and the environmental greening level. Finally, considering the urban heterogeneity, we find that the positive impact of medical infrastructure on regional innovation is reflected mainly in eastern and central cities, non-sub-provincial cities, and non-resource-based cities. These conclusions not only enrich the theoretical research on regional innovation from the perspective of medical infrastructure but also shed light on how to better promote regional innovation for China or even other countries.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...